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Luxembourg – Japan: Tax Treaty

CONVENTION BETWEEN THE GRAND-DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG AND JAPAN FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND/OR TO A CERTAIN OTHER TAX

Article 1

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

1. This Convention shall apply to the following taxes:

(a) in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg:

(i) the income tax on individuals (l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques);
(ii) the corporation tax (l’impôt sur le revenu des collectivités);
(iii) the tax on fees of directors of companies (l’impôt spécial sur les tantièmes);
(iv) the capital tax (l’impôt sur la fortune); and
(v) the communal trade tax (l’impôt commercial communal)

(hereinafter referred to as “Luxembourg tax”);

(b) in Japan:

(i) the income tax;
(ii) the corporation tax; and
(iii) the local inhabitant taxes

(hereinafter referred to as “Japanese tax”).

2. This Convention shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes, whether national or local, which are imposed after the date of signature of this Convention in addition to, or in place of, those referred to in paragraph 1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws within a reasonable period of time after such changes.

Article 3

1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the term “Luxembourg” means the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg and, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg;
(b) the term “Japan”, when used in a geographical sense, means all the territory of Japan, including its territorial sea, in which the laws relating to Japanese tax are in force, and all the area beyond its territorial sea, including the seabed and subsoil thereof, over which Japan has jurisdiction in accordance with international law and in which the laws relating to Japanese tax are in force;
(c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Luxembourg or Japan, as the context requires;
(d) the term “tax” means Luxembourg tax or Japanese tax, as the context requires;
(e) the term “person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;
(f) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
(g) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
(h) the term “nationals” means all individuals possessing the nationality of either Contracting State and all juridical persons created or organized under the laws of that Contracting State and all organizations without juridical personality treated for the purposes of tax of that Contracting State as juridical persons created or organized under the laws of that Contracting State;
(i) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State; and
(j) the term “competent authority” means:

(i) in the case of Luxembourg, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;
(ii) in the case of Japan, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative.

2. As regards the application of this Convention by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that Contracting State concerning the taxes to which this Convention applies.

Article 4

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that Contracting State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of head or main office or any other criterion of a similar nature.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then this case shall be determined in accordance with the following rules:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are closest (centre of vital interests);
(b) if the Contracting State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has an habitual abode;
(c) if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State of which he is a national;
(d) if he is a national of both Contracting States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which its head or main office is situated.

Article 5

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

(a) a place of management;
(b) a branch;
(c) an office;
(d) a factory;
(e) a workshop; and
(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

3. A building site or construction or installation project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than twelve months.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods of merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character; and
(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person — other than an agent of an independent status to whom the provisions of paragraph 6 apply — is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that Contracting State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other Contracting State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the laws of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting immovable property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in that other Contracting State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

1. Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic carried on by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. In respect of the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic carried on by an enterprise of a Contracting State, that enterprise, if an enterprise of Luxembourg, shall be exempt from the enterprise tax in Japan, and, if an enterprise of Japan, shall be exempt from any tax similar to the enterprise tax in Japan which may hereafter be imposed in Luxembourg.

3. The provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

1. Where

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1, in the profits of an enterprise of that Contracting State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other Contracting State and where the competent authorities of the Contracting States agree, upon consultation, that all or part of the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned Contracting State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other Contracting State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those agreed profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 10

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends the tax so charged shall not exceed:

(a) 5% of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which owns at least 25% of the voting shares of the company paying the dividends during the period of six months immediately before the end of the accounting period for which the distribution of profits takes place;
(b) 15% of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

The provisions of this paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the taxation laws of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other Contracting State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other Contracting State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other Contracting State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in that other Contracting State.

Article 11

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10% of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and derived by the Government of the other Contracting State, a local authority thereof, the Central Bank of that other Contracting State or any financial institution wholly owned by that Government, or by any resident of the other Contracting State with respect to debt-claims guaranteed, insured or indirectly financed by the Government of that other Contracting State, a local authority thereof the Central Bank of that other Contracting State or any financial institution wholly owned by that Government shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State.

4. For the purposes of paragraph 3, the terms “the Central Bank” and “financial institution wholly owned by the Government” mean:

(a) in the case of Luxembourg:

(i) the National Credit and Investment Corporation (la Société Nationale de Credit et d’Investissement); and
(ii) such other financial institution the capital of which is wholly owned by the Government of Luxembourg as may be agreed upon from time to time between the Governments of the two Contracting States;
(b) in the case of Japan:

(i) the Bank of Japan;
(ii) the Export-Import Bank of Japan;
(iii) the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund:
(iv) the Japan International Cooperation Agency; and
(v) such other financial institution the capital of which is wholly owned by the Government of Japan as may be agreed upon from time to time between the Governments of the two Contracting States.

5. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and, in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures.

6. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt- claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

7. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a local authority thereof or a resident of that Contracting State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

8. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties the tax so charged shall not exceed 10% of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and films or tapes for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, as well as receipts from a bare boat charter of ships or aircraft.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself a local authority thereof or a resident of that Contracting State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than immovable property, forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of any property, other than immovable property, pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or together with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

3. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic and any property, other than immovable property, pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in the preceding paragraphs of this Article and arising in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

Article 14

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in that other Contracting State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base.

2. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State, if:

(a) the recipient is present in that other Contracting State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the calendar year concerned; and
(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of that other Contracting State; and
(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in that other Contracting State.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that Contracting State.

Article 16

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

Article 17

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, and a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

Such income shall, however, be exempt from tax in that other Contracting State if such activities are exercised by an individual, being a resident of the first-mentioned Contracting State, pursuant to a special programme for cultural exchange agreed upon between the Governments of the two Contracting States.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised in a Contracting State by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person who is a resident of the other Contracting State, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.

Such income shall, however, be exempt from tax in that Contracting State if such income is derived from the activities exercised by an individual, being a resident of the other Contracting State, pursuant to a special programme for cultural exchange agreed upon between the Governments of the two Contracting States and accrues to another person who is a resident of that other Contracting State.

Article 18

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of Japan under the Act of July 27, 1987 concerning pension insurance for old age, infirmity and survivor (Loi du 27 juillet 1987 concernant l’assurance pension en cas de vieillesse, d’invalidité et de survie) or any other law which may be introduced in future in Luxembourg in modification of, or in addition to, the said Act may be taxed in Luxembourg.

Article 19

1. (a)  Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or local authority thereof, in the discharge of functions of a governmental nature, shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other Contracting State and the individual is a resident of that other Contracting State who:

(i) is a national of that other Contracting State: or
(ii) did not become a resident of that other Contracting State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
2. (a)  Any pension paid by, or out of funds to which contributions are made by, a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or local authority thereof shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of and a national of that other Contracting State.

3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall be exempt from tax of the first-mentioned Contracting State, provided that such payments are made to him from outside that first-mentioned Contracting State.

Article 21

1. An individual who visits a Contracting State for a period not exceeding two years for the purpose of teaching or conducting research at a university, college, school or other accredited educational institution in that Contracting State, and who is, or immediately before such visit was, a resident of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State on any remuneration for such teaching or research in respect of which he is subject to tax in the other Contracting State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income from research if such research is undertaken primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

Article 22

1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention and arising in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

Article 23

1. Capital represented by immovable property, as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. Capital represented by any property, other than immovable property, forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by any property, other than immovable property, pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

3. Capital represented by ships and aircraft owned and operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State, and by any property, other than immovable property, pertaining to the operation of such ships and aircraft, shall be exempt from tax of the other Contracting State.

4. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax of the other Contracting State.

Article 24

1. In Luxembourg, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:

(a) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Japan and/or owns capital situated in Japan which may be taxed in Japan, Luxembourg shall, subject to the provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c), exempt such income and/or capital from tax.
(b) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 10, 11, 12, paragraph 4 of Article 13 and paragraph 3 of Article 22, may be taxed in Japan, Luxembourg shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Japan. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to such income derived from Japan.
(c) Where in accordance with any provision of this Convention income derived or capital owned by a resident of Luxembourg is exempt from tax in Luxembourg, Luxembourg may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of such resident, take into account the exempted income or capital.

2. Subject to the laws of Japan regarding the allowance as a credit against Japanese tax of tax payable in any country other than Japan:

(a) Where a resident of Japan derives income from Luxembourg which may be taxed in Luxembourg in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, the amount of Luxembourg tax payable in respect of that income shall be allowed as a credit against the Japanese tax imposed on that resident. The amount of credit, however, shall not exceed that part of the Japanese tax which is appropriate to that income.
(b) Where the income derived from Luxembourg is a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Luxembourg to a company which is a resident of Japan and which owns not less than 25 per cent either of the voting shares of the company paying the dividend, or of the total shares issued by that company, the credit shall take into account the Luxembourg tax payable by the company paying the dividend in respect of its income.

Article 25

The provisions of this Convention in respect of taxation on income shall not apply to the holding companies, within the meaning of the Act (loi) of July 31, 1929 and the Decree (arrêté grand-ducal) of December 17, 1938, or any subsequent revision thereof, or such other companies which enjoy a similar special fiscal treatment by virtue of the laws of Luxembourg as may be agreed upon between the Governments of the two Contracting States. Neither shall they apply to income which is derived by a resident of Japan from the above- mentioned companies.

Article 26

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other Contracting State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other Contracting State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other Contracting State carrying on the same activities.

This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

3. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 8 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned Contracting State.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned Contracting State are or may be subjected.

5. The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply to taxes of every kind and description.

Article 27

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic laws of those Contracting States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 26, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified if ii is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic laws of the Contracting States.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of this Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in this Convention.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs of this Article.

Article 28

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the provisions of this Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that Contracting State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities, including courts and administrative bodies, involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

Article 29

1. Each of the Contracting States shall endeavour to collect such taxes imposed by the other Contracting State as will ensure that any exemption or reduced rate of tax granted under this Convention by that other Contracting State shall not be enjoyed by persons not entitled to such benefits. The Contracting State making such collections shall be responsible to the other Contracting State for the sums thus collected.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose upon either of the Contracting States the obligation to carry out administrative measures at variance with the regulations and practices of the Contracting State endeavouring to collect the tax or which would be contrary to the public policy (ordre public) of that Contracting State.

Article 30

Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 31

1. This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Tokyo as soon as possible.

2. This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day alter the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification and shall have effect:

(a) in Luxembourg:

(i) as regards taxes withheld at source on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which this Convention enters into force;
(ii) as regards other taxes on income and on capital for any taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which this Convention enters into force; and
(b) in Japan:

as regards income for any taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which this Convention enters into force.

Article 32

This Convention shall continue in effect indefinitely but either Contracting State may, on or before the thirtieth day of June of any calendar year beginning alter the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force, give to the other Contracting State, through the diplomatic channel, written notice of termination and, in such event, this Convention shall cease to have effect:

(a) in Luxembourg:

(i) as regards taxes withheld at source on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given;
(ii) as regards other taxes on income and on capital for any taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given; and
(b) in Japan:

as regards income for any taxable year beginning on or after the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which the notice of termination is given.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.

Done in duplicate at Luxembourg on March 5, 1992, in the English language.


EXCHANGE OF LETTERS

I

LETTER FROM THE AMBASSADOR OF JAPAN

TO THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, FOREIGN TRADE AND COOPERATION

(5.3.1992)

Luxembourg, March 5, 1992

Excellency,

I have the honour to refer to the Convention between Japan and the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and/or to a Certain Other Tax signed today (hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”) and to confirm, on behalf of the Government of Japan the following understanding reached between the two Governments:

The agreement contained in the Exchange of Notes between the two Governments dated February 7, 1990 concerning the avoidance of double taxation on income and/or capital in respect of the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall cease to have effect as respects income or taxes to which the Convention shall have effect in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 31 thereof.

I have further the honour to request Your Excellency to be good enough to confirm the foregoing understanding on behalf of Your Excellency’s Government.

I avail myself of this opportunity to extend to Your Excellency the assurance of my highest consideration.

Atsuhiko Yatabe

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan

to the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg

His Excellency

Mr. Jacques F. Poos

Minister of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Cooperation of

the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg

II

LETTER FROM THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS,

FOREIGN TRADE AND COOPERATION TO THE AMBASSADOR OF JAPAN

(5.3.1992)

Excellency,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency’s Note of today’s date which reads as follows:

[SEE I]I have further the honour to confirm the understanding contained in Your Excellency’s Note, on behalf of the Government of the Grand- Duchy of Luxembourg.

I avail myself of this opportunity to extend to Your Excellency the assurance of my highest consideration.

Jacques F. Poos

Minister of Foreign Affairs,

Foreign Trade and Cooperation

His Excellency

Mr. Atsuhiko Yatabe

Ambassador of Japan

Luxembourg


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