201210.06
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Luxembourg – Portugal: Tax Treaty

CONVENTION BETWEEN THE GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG AND THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL

Article 1

Personal scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

Taxes covered

1. The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:

(a) in respect of Luxembourg:

(i) the individual income tax (l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques);
(ii) the corporate income tax (l’impôt sur le revenu des collectivités);
(iii) the special tax on directors’ fees (l’impôt spécial sur les tantièmes);
(iv) the capital tax (l’impôt sur la fortune);
(v) the communal trade tax (l’impôt commercial communal); and
(vi) the landed property tax (l’impôt foncier)

(hereinafter referred to as “Luxembourg tax”);

(b) in respect of Portugal:

(i) the individual income tax (o imposto sobre o rendimento das pessoas singulares — IRS);
(ii) the corporate income tax (o imposto sobre o rendimento das pessoas colectivas — IRC);
(iii) the municipal surcharge on corporate income tax (a derrama); and
(iv) the municipal real estate tax (a contribuiçâo autárquica)

(hereinafter referred to as “Portuguese tax”).

2. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. At the beginning of each year, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws during the preceding year.

Article 3

General definitions

1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean, as the context requires, Portugal or Luxembourg;
(b) the term “Luxembourg”, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg;
(c) the term “Portugal” means the territory of the Portuguese Republic situated in the European Continent, the archipelagoes of Azores and Madeira, the respective territorial sea as well as any other zone in which, in accordance with the laws of Portugal and international law, the Portuguese Republic has its jurisdiction or sovereign rights with respect to the exploration and exploitation of the natural resources of the seabed and subsoil, and of the superjacent waters;
(d) the term “person” includes an individual and a company;
(e) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
(f) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean, respectively, an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
(g) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise which has its place of effective management in a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places situated in the other Contracting State;
(h) the term “competent authority” means:

(i) in the case of Luxembourg, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;
(ii) in the case of Portugal, the Minister of Finance, the Director General of Taxes or their authorized representatives.

2. As regards the application of this Convention by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which this Convention applies.

Article 4

Resident

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him. If he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
(b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined or if he does not have a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which he is a national;
(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.

Article 5

Permanent establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” shall include especially:

(a) a place of management;
(b) a branch;
(c) an office;
(d) a factory;
(e) a workshop; and
(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

3. A building site or construction or assembly project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than six months.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business is of preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person — other than an agent of an independent status, to whom paragraph 7 applies — is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 4, 7 and 8, an enterprise of a Contracting State that carries on business in the other Contracting State through its own employees or any other personnel rendering substantially identical services for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that other State.

7. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

8. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

Income from immovable property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

5. The foregoing provisions of this Article shall also apply to income from movable property which, under the taxation law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated, is assimilated to income from immovable property.

Article 7

Business profits

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State, but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

Shipping and air transport

1. Profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

2. If the place of effective management of a shipping enterprise is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbour of the ship is situated, or, if there is no such home harbour, in the Contracting State of which the operator of the ship is a resident.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

Associated enterprises

1. Where:

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State — and taxes accordingly — profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State, and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits, where that other State considers the adjustment justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall, if necessary, consult each other.

Article 10

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State but, if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15% of the gross amount of the dividends.

The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of these limitations.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, “jouissance” shares or “jouissance” rights, mining shares, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident. The term “dividends” shall also include, in the case of Portugal, profits paid under a profit-sharing arrangement (associaçâo em participaçâo) and, in the case of Luxembourg, income derived by a sleeping partner from his participation in profits of a business enterprise.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State, of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State but, if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

(a) 10% of the gross amount of the interest, if the interest is paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State, for which such interest is deemed to be a deductible expense, to a financial establishment which is a resident of the other Contracting State;
(b) 15% of the gross amount of the interest, in all other cases.

The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of these limitations.

3. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and income from other debt-claims of every kind, as well as any other income assimilated to income from money lent by the taxation law of the State in which income arises.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State, in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political or administrative subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State but, if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10% of the gross amount of the royalties.

The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this limitation.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work, including cinematograph films or films or tapes for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

The term “royalties” shall also include payments for technical assistance which is supplied in connection with the use of, or the right to use, any right, property or information referred to in this paragraph.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State, in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political or administrative subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner of the royalties or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13

Capital gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

4. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

Article 14

Independent personal services

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State. However, such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State in the following cases:

(a) if that resident has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in such case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in the other Contracting State; or
(b) if that resident is present in the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any 12-month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.

2. The term “professional services” includes, especially, independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

Dependent personal services

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21, salaries, wages and similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State, unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any 12-month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and
(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

Article 16

Directors’ fees

Directors’ fees, attendance fees and similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or supervisory board or a similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State. However, remuneration paid by such company to a member of its boards in respect of the exercise of a continuous activity may be taxed in accordance with the provisions of Article 15.

Article 17

Artistes and sportsmen

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.

Article 18

Pensions

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions paid under the Social Security legislation of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

Article 19

Government service

1. (a)  Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political or administrative subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

(i) is a national of that State; or
(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the said services.
2. (a)  Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political or administrative subdivision or local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political or administrative subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Professors

Subject to the provisions of Article 19, remuneration received by a professor or teacher who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State for a period not exceeding two years solely for the purpose of teaching or engaging in scientific research at a university or other educational or scientific research institution recognized as non-profitable shall be taxable only in that other Contracting State.

Article 21

Students

Payments which a student or trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State or constitute a remuneration in respect of a part time activity exercised in that State within the limits allowing him to continue with his education or training.

Article 22

Other income

1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State, provided that they are subjected to taxation therein.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 23

Capital

1. Capital represented by immovable property referred to in Article 6, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Capital represented by ships and aircraft operated in international traffic and by movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

4. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 24

Methods for elimination of double taxation

1. In the case of Luxembourg, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:

(a) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Portugal, Luxembourg shall, subject to the provisions of subparagraphs (b) to (e), exempt such income or capital from tax.
(b) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives items of income which, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 10, 11 and 12, may be taxed in Portugal, Luxembourg shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Portugal.Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the items of income received from Portugal.
(c) Notwithstanding subparagraph (b), dividends paid by a company which is a resident of Portugal and which is subject therein to a tax corresponding to the Luxembourg corporate income tax to a capital company (société de capitaux) which is a resident of Luxembourg and which holds since the beginning of its accounting year directly at least 25% of the capital of the first-mentioned company shall be subject to the treatment provided for in subparagraph (a).
(d) Where by reason of special provisions for the purpose of encouraging the economic and social development of Portugal, the interest and royalties referred to, respectively, in subparagraph (a) of paragraph 2 of Article 11 and paragraph 2 of Article 12 paid by a resident of Portugal are exempt from tax or subject to a reduced rate of tax in Portugal, then the tax paid in Portugal on such income shall, for the purposes of application of subparagraph (b) of this paragraph, be deemed to have been paid in Portugal at a rate of 10% of its gross amount. The provisions of this subparagraph shall apply for a period of 8 years beginning on 1 January of the year following that in which this Convention enters into force.
(e) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with any provision of this Convention other than subparagraph (c) of this paragraph, is exempt from tax in Luxembourg, Luxembourg may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of such resident, take into account the exempted income or capital.

2. In the case of Portugal, double taxation shall be avoided, in accordance with the provisions applicable under the laws of Portugal (as long as they do not contradict the general principles provided for in this paragraph), as follows:

(a) Where a resident of a Portugal derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Luxembourg, Portugal shall allow, as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in Luxembourg.Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in Luxembourg.
(b) Where a company which is a resident of Portugal receives dividends from a company which is a resident of Luxembourg in which the first-mentioned company holds directly a participation in the capital of at least 25%, Portugal shall, for the purposes of determining the taxable profit subject to corporate income tax, allow as a deduction an amount equal to 95% of the dividends included in the taxable base, under the terms and conditions provided for in the laws of Portugal.
(c) Where, in accordance with any provision of this Convention, income derived by a resident of Portugal is exempt from tax in Portugal, Portugal may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

Article 25

Non-discrimination

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of the other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

2. The term “nationals” means:

(a) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
(b) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State.

3. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

4. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 6 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12 apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profit of such enterprise, be deductible as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned Contracting State. Similarly, any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable capital of such enterprise, be deductible as if they had been contracted to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

5. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

Article 26

Mutual agreement procedure

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 25, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within two years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention.

4.The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach such agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

Article 27

Exchange of information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by the provisions of Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by this Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information so obtained only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

Article 28

Diplomatic agents and consular officers

Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 29

Exclusion of certain companies

1. The provisions of this Convention shall not be applicable to companies which benefit from a special fiscal treatment under the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State. Similarly, such provisions shall not be applicable in respect of income which a resident of the other Contracting State receives from such companies, or in respect of shares or other corporate rights in the capital of those companies which are held by such resident.

2. The Governments of the Contracting States shall agree with each other periodically as to what shall be understood by “companies which benefit from a special fiscal treatment under the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State” under the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 30

Entry into force

1. This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at … as soon as possible.

2. The Convention shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect:

(a) in Luxembourg:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to income attributed or paid on or after 1 January in the year following that in which the Convention enters into force;
(ii) in respect of other taxes, to any fiscal year beginning on or after 1 January in the year following that in which the Convention enters into force;
(b) in Portugal:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, the fact giving rise to them appearing on or after 1 January in the year following that in which the Convention enters into force;
(ii) in respect of other taxes, to income arising in any fiscal year beginning on or after 1 January in the year following that in which the Convention enters into force.

Article 31

Termination

This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least 6 months before the end of any calendar year. In such case, the Convention shall cease to have effect:

(a) in Luxembourg:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to income attributed or paid on or after 1 January in the year next following the date on which the period specified in the notice of termination expires;
(ii) in respect of other taxes, to any fiscal year beginning on or after 1 January in the year next following the date on which the period specified in the notice of termination expires;
(b) in Portugal:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, the fact giving rise to them appearing on or after 1 January in the year next following the date on which the period specified in the notice of termination expires;
(ii) in respect of other taxes, to income arising in any fiscal year beginning on or after 1 January in the year next following the date on which the period specified in the notice of termination expires.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

Done at …, this 25th day of May 1999, in duplicate, in the French and Portuguese languages, both texts being equally authentic.

PROTOCOL

At the moment of signing the Convention between the Government of the Portuguese Republic and the Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital, the undersigned have agreed upon the following additional provisions which shall be an integral part of the Convention.

Ad Article 2

If Portugal introduces a tax comparable to the Luxembourg capital tax, the Contracting States shall consult together for the purpose of reaching an agreement on whether or not to extend the scope of the Convention to include that tax.

Ad Article 18, paragraph 2

Luxembourg shall not exercise its right to taxation in respect of that part of pensions below LUF 50,000 a month paid to a resident of Portugal under the Social Security laws of Luxembourg. To that purpose and after the application of the rate provisions in force, it shall be deducted from the amount of tax so determined the tax which corresponds, according to the monthly withholding tax table on pensions, to the band of taxable income which is immediately below the amount of LUF 50,000 a month.

The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall consult together periodically as regards the adjustment of the said amount of LUF 50,000.

Ad Article 29

The expression “companies which benefit from a special tax treatment under the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State” means holding companies in the sense of Luxembourg legislation which is governed by the Law of 31 July 1929 and the Grand-Ducal Decree of 17 December 1938.

Ad Article 30

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 30, the provisions of Article 8, paragraph 3 of Article 13 and paragraph 3 of Article 23 shall have effect in both Contracting States in respect of any fiscal year beginning on or after 1 January 1989.

In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Protocol.

Done at …, this 25th day of May 1999, in duplicate, in the French and Portuguese languages, both texts being equally authentic.


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