201210.06
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Luxembourg – Thailand: Tax Treaty

CONVENTION BETWEEN THE KINGDOM OF THAILAND AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL

Article 1

Personal scope

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

Taxes covered

1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.

3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are :

(a) in the case of Thailand :

the income tax; and
the petroleum income tax;

(hereinafter referred to as “Thai tax”);

(b) in the case of Luxembourg :

the income tax on individuals (l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques);
the corporation tax (l’impôt sur le revenu des collectivités);
the tax on fees of directors of companies (l’impôt spécial sur les tantièmes);
the capital tax (l’impôt sur la fortune); and
the communal trade tax (l’impôt commercial communal);

(hereinafter referred to as “Luxembourg tax”).

4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3

General definitions

1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires :

(a) the term “Thailand” means the Kingdom of Thailand and includes any area adjacent to the territorial waters of the Kingdom of Thailand which, under the Thai legislation and the international law, falls under the jurisdiction of the Kingdom of Thailand;
(b) the term “Luxembourg” means the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg;
(c) the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Thailand or Luxembourg as the context requires;
(d) the term “person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons as well as any entity treated as a taxable unit under the taxation laws in force in either Contracting State;
(e) the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
(f) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
(g) the term “tax” means Thai tax or Luxembourg tax as the context requires;
(h) the term “national” means :

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
(ii) any legal person, partnership, association and any other entity deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
(i) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State; and
(j) the term “competent authority” means, in the case of Thailand, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative, and, in the case of Luxembourg, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative.

2. As regards the application of the Convention by a Contracting State any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the law of that State concerning the taxes to which the Convention applies.

Article 4

Resident

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of incorporation, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature. But this term does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows :

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
(b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which he is a national;
(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

Article 5

Permanent establishment

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially :

(a) a place of management;
(b) a branch;
(c) an office;
(d) a factory;
(e) a workshop;
(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources;
(g) a farm or plantation;
(h) a warehouse, in relation to a person providing storage facilities for others;
(i) a building site, a construction, installation or assembly project or supervisory activities in connection therewith, where such site, project or activities continue for a period of more than 6 months;
(j) the furnishing of services including consultancy services by a resident of one of the Contracting States through employees or other personnel, where activities of that nature continue for the same or a connected project within the other Contracting State for a period or periods aggregating more than 6 months within any twelve-month period.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include :

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display;
(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of advertising, for the supply of information, for scientific research or for similar activities which have a preparatory or auxiliary character, for the enterprise.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person — other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies — is acting in a Contracting State, on behalf of the enterprise of the other Contracting State, the enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first- mentioned Contracting State, if such a person :

(a) has and habitually exercises in the first-mentioned State, an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, unless his activities are limited to the purchase of goods or merchandise for the enterprise;
(b) has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first- mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise from which he regularly fills orders or makes deliveries on behalf of the enterprise; or
(c) has no such authority, but habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned State wholly or almost wholly for the enterprise or for the enterprise and other enterprises which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it.

5. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, an insurance enterprise of a Contracting State shall, except in regard to reinsurance, be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other State if it collects premiums in the territory of that other State or insures risks situated therein through an employee or through a representative who is not an agent of an independent status within the meaning of paragraph 6 of this Article.

6. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise or on behalf of that enterprise and other enterprises, which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it, he will not be considered an agent of independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

Income from immovable property

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

Business profits

1. The income or profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the income or profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to

(a) that permanent establishment;
(b) sales in that other State of goods or merchandise of the same or similar kind as those sold through that permanent establishment; or
(c) other business activities carried on in that other State of the same or similar kind as those effected through that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this Article, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the income or profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the business of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere. However, no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, paid (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission, for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment. Likewise, no account shall be taken, in the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, for amounts charged (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses), by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents or other rights, or by way of commission for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of a certain percentage of the gross receipt of the enterprise or of the permanent establishment or on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 of this Article shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such a method as may be customary; the method adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No income or profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the income or profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where income or profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

Shipping and air transport

1. Income or profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. Income or profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships in international traffic may be taxed in the other Contracting State, but the tax imposed in that other State shall be reduced by an amount equal to 50 per cent thereof.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to income or profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

Associated enterprises

Where

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any income or profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the income or profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

Article 10

Dividends

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends, the tax so charged shall not exceed :

(a) in the case of Thailand :  15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends;
(b) in the case of Luxembourg :

(i) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which holds directly at least 25 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends;
(ii) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, mining shares, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing Thailand from imposing income tax, according to the laws of Thailand, on the disposal of profits made by a permanent establishment situated therein, but the tax so charged shall not exceed the rate provided for in sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph 2 of this Article.

Article 11

Interest

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest, the tax so charged shall not exceed :

(a) 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest if it is received by any financial institution (including an insurance company);
(b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the interest in all other cases.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to the Government of the other Contracting State, shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State.

For the purpose of this paragraph, the term “Government”

(a) in the case of Thailand, means the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and shall include :

(i) the Bank of Thailand;
(ii) the local authorities; and
(iii) such institutions, the capital of which is wholly owned by the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand or any local authorities or statutory bodies thereof, as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities of the two Contracting States;
(b) in the case of Luxembourg, means the Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and shall include :

(i) the local authorities; and
(ii) such institutions the capital of which is wholly owned by the Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg or any local authorities or statutory bodies thereof, as may be agreed from time to time between the competent authorities of the two Contracting States.

4. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage, and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with :

(a) such permanent establishment or fixed base, or
(b) business activities referred to under (c) of paragraph 1 of Article 7.

In such cases the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

Royalties

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films, or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial, or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with :

(a) such permanent establishment or fixed base, or
(b) business activities referred to under (c) of paragraph 1 of Article 7.

In such cases the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

7. The provisions of this Article shall likewise apply to gains from the alienation of any right or property giving rise to such royalties if such right or property is alienated by a resident of a Contracting State for exclusive use in the other Contracting State and the payment for such right or property is borne by an enterprise of that other State or by a permanent establishment situated therein.

Article 13

Capital gains

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such a fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.

4. Gains from the alienation of any property or assets, other than those referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article and paragraph 7 of Article 12, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent either Contracting State from taxing the gains or income from the sale or transfer of shares or other securities.

Article 14

Independent personal services

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances, when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State :

(a) if he has a fixed base available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities, for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve-month period; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other State; or
(b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve-month period; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State; or
(c) if the remuneration for his activities in the other Contracting State is paid by a resident of that Contracting State or is borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that Contracting State; in that case, only so much of the remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, dentists, lawyers, engineers, architects and accountants.

Article 15

Dependent personal services

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if :

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve-month period, and
(b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State, shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 16

Directors’ fees

1. Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as an official in a top-level managerial position of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

Artistes and athletes

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as an athlete, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or an athlete in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or athlete himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or athlete are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply to remuneration or profits, salaries, wages and other similar income derived from activities performed in a Contracting State by an entertainer or an athlete if the visit to that Contracting State is mainly supported by public funds of the other Contracting State, including any local authority or statutory body thereof.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 7, where the activities mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article are provided in a Contracting State by an enterprise of the other Contracting State the profits derived from providing these activities by such an enterprise may be taxed in the first-mentioned Contracting State unless the enterprise is mainly supported from the public funds of the other Contracting State, including any local authority or statutory body thereof, in connection with the provisions of such activities.

Article 18

Pensions and social security payments

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment may be taxed in that State.

2. However, such pensions and other similar remuneration may also be taxed in the other Contracting State if the payment is made by a resident of that other State or a permanent establishment situated therein.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, pensions paid and other payments made under a public scheme which is part of the social security system of a Contracting State or a local authority thereof shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 19

Governmental function

1. (a)  Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who :

(i) is a national of that State; or
(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
2. (a)  Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Students

An individual who, immediately before visiting a Contracting State, was a resident of the other Contracting State and whose visit to the first-mentioned Contracting State is solely for the purpose of :

(a) studying at a university or other recognized educational institution; or
(b) securing training to qualify him to practise a profession or trade; or
(c) studying or carrying out research as a recipient of a grant, allowance or award from a governmental, religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational organization;

shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State on :

(i) remittance from abroad for the purpose of his maintenance, education, study, research or training;
(ii) the grant, allowance or award; and
(iii) income from personal services rendered in that State provided the income constitutes earnings reasonably necessary for his maintenance and education.

Article 21

Professors, teachers and researchers

1. An individual who is a resident of a Contracting State immediately before making a visit to the other Contracting State, and who, at the invitation of any university, college, school or other similar educational institution which is recognized by the competent authority in that other Contracting State, visits that other Contracting State for a period not exceeding two years solely for the purpose of teaching or research or both at such educational institution shall be exempt from tax in that other Contracting State on any remuneration for such teaching or research.

2. This Article shall only apply to income from research if such research is undertaken by the individual for the public interest and not primarily for the benefit of some other private person or persons.

Article 22

Income not expressly mentioned

Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State which are not expressly mentioned in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State except that, if such income is derived from sources within the other Contracting State, it may also be taxed in that other State.

Article 23

Capital

1. Capital represented by immovable property referred to in Article 6, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other State.

3. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 24

Elimination of double taxation

1. The laws in force in either of the Contracting States shall continue to govern the taxation of income and capital in the respective Contracting States except where express provisions to the contrary is made in this Convention. When income or capital is subject to tax in both Contracting States, relief from double taxation shall be given in accordance with the following paragraphs of this Article.

2. In the case of Thailand double taxation shall be avoided as follows :  Subject to the laws of Thailand regarding the allowance as a credit against Thai tax of tax payable in any country other than Thailand, where a resident of Thailand derives income from Luxembourg which may be taxed in Luxembourg in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, the amount of Luxembourg tax payable in respect of that income shall be allowed as a credit against the Thai tax imposed on that resident. The amount of credit shall not, however, exceed that part of the Thai tax which is appropriate to that income.

3. In the case of Luxembourg double taxation shall be avoided as follows :

(a) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Thailand, Luxembourg shall, subject to the provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c), exempt such income or capital from tax, but may, in order to calculate the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of the resident, apply the same rates of tax as if the income or capital had not been exempted.
(b) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 8, Articles 10, 11, 12, paragraph 4 of Article 13 and Article 22 may be taxed in Thailand, Luxembourg shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Thailand. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to such items of income derived from Thailand.
(c) Where a company which is a resident of Luxembourg derives dividends from Thai sources, Luxembourg shall exempt such dividends from tax, provided that the company which is a resident of Luxembourg holds directly at least 25 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends since the beginning of the accounting year. The above-mentioned shares in the Thai company are, under the same conditions, exempt from the Luxembourg capital tax.
(d) For the purposes of sub-paragraph (b), the term “the tax paid in Thailand” shall be deemed to include the amount of Thai tax which would have been paid under the laws of Thailand, if the Thai tax had not been exempted or reduced in accordance with any special incentive law designed to promote economic development in Thailand, effective on the date of signature of this Convention or which may be introduced hereafter in modification of, or in addition to, the existing law, provided that the amount of the tax referred to in this sub-paragraph shall not, however, exceed :

(i) 15 per cent of the gross amount of dividends;
(ii) 10 per cent of the gross amount of interest referred to in sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph 2 of Article 11;
(iii) 15 per cent of the gross amount of interest referred to in sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph 2 of Article 11;
(iv) 15 per cent of the gross amount of royalties.

The provisions of this sub-paragraph shall only apply for a period of 12 years beginning on the first day of January of the taxable year next following that in which this Convention enters into force. This period may be extended by mutual agreement between the competent authorities.

Article 25

Non-discrimination

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.

3. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

4. The provisions of this Article shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

5. The provisions of this Article shall only apply to the taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

Article 26

Mutual agreement procedure

1. Where a resident of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic laws of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 27

Exchange of information

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation :

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

Article 28

Diplomatic agents and consular officials

Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officials under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 29

Exclusion of certain companies

This Convention shall apply neither to holding companies (sociétés holding) within the meaning of special Luxembourg laws, currently the Act (loi) of 31 July 1929 and the Decree (arrêté grand-ducal) of 17 December 1938 nor to companies subject to a similar fiscal law in Luxembourg. Neither shall it apply to income derived from such companies by a resident of Thailand nor to shares or other rights in such companies owned by such a person.

Article 30

Entry into force

1. This Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification shall be exchanged at Luxembourg as soon as possible.

2. The Convention shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification and its provisions shall have effect :

(a) in respect of taxes withheld at the source, on amounts paid or remitted on or after the first day of January next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place;
(b) in respect of other taxes on income and on capital, for taxable years or accounting periods beginning on or after the first day of January next following that in which the exchange of instruments of ratification takes place.

Article 31

Termination

This Convention shall remain in force indefinitely, but either of the Contracting States may, on or before 30th June in any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force, give to the other Contracting State, through diplomatic channels, written notice of termination.

In such event the Convention shall cease to have effect :

(a) in respect of taxes withheld at the source, on amounts paid or remitted on or after the first day of January next following that in which the notice is given;
(b) in respect of other taxes on income and on capital, for taxable years or accounting periods beginning on or after the first day of January next following that in which the notice is given.

In witness whereof, the undersigned duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.

Done in duplicate at Bangkok on this 6th day of May, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-sixth Year of the Christian Era, each in the Thai, French and English languages, all texts being equally authoritative.


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